All molecule production experiments rest on mechanism simulations of their detectors to make measurements, yet neutrino experiments onslaught to exam these simulations regulating particles that are combined from a neutrino lamp itself.
Neutrino interactions mostly furnish charged particles such as muons or electrons, and they hit one or some-more protons or neutrons out of a nucleus. Neutrino interactions also furnish quark-antiquark pairs called pions (see progressing MINERvA formula from February, August and January). Each of these opposite particles gives us a perspective inside a nucleus, yet to make these accurate measurements, MINERvA needs to know what these particles do once they exit a iota and enter a rest of a detector.
We could simply trust a mechanism package (called Geant4) that simulates molecule interactions, yet to be rigorous, we determine that package. To do this we use a well-calibrated low-energy lamp of pions, protons, muons and electrons from a Fermilab Test Beam Facility and a scaled-down chronicle of a full MINERvA detector that is done of planes of scintillator, lead and steel. This smaller detector, that can be configured to replicate a downstream third of a neutrino detector, uses a same materials, wiring and calibration strategy.
We took information for 6 weeks in a summer of 2010 regulating a scaled-down detector and have been poring over this information ever given to magnitude many opposite aspects of a approach a detector performs.
With these information we were means to address, for one, how a kinetic appetite of a pion entering a detector is translated into an appetite measurement. When we use a renouned Geant4 indication for low-energy pions interacting in a unnatural detector, a prophecy is a good, yet not perfect, outline of a data. The examination was designed to exam a simulation, and a systematic uncertainties are tiny adequate that we can allot a tiny doubt on how good Geant4 predicts a pion’s energy.
We also used a exam lamp information to magnitude sum about a scintillator element itself to urge a indication of a detector geometry and electronics. We also softened how we regulate both a exam lamp and a neutrino detector.
We have ceaselessly fed behind all of these improvements into a neutrino research given a exam lamp module started. This has been a advantage to other programs too. For example, a low-energy beamline pattern and hardware is now being used in MCenter for theLArIAT experiment.
The formula have been recommended for publication in Nuclear Instruments and Methods A. MINERvA has also started a second turn of higher-energy exam lamp measurements to compare a new higher-energy neutrino lamp to know still some-more about a approach this detector performs.
Source: FNAL, created by Rik Gran, University of Minnesota – Duluth